Phonemes and Graphemes

Phonemes and Graphemes

For those teaching at home, phonemes / graphemes / diagraphs / trigraphs  may be a whole new learning experience. I do hope that this helps.

A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound. Phonemes are put together to make words.

A grapheme is a way of writing down a phoneme. Graphemes are made up of 1, 2 or 3 letters eg:  a  /  sh  /  igh

1 letter:    a   t   g

2 letters: sh   ng   th (also known as a diagraph – 2 letters put together that make one sound)

3 letters: igh air ure (also known as a trigraph – 3 letters put together that make one sound)


A Tricky word is one that can’t be sounded out easily: the / no / put / her / was

Here are the list of order that the phonemes and tricky words are taught. You will notice that there is no phase 4 phonemes as phase 4 is consolidating the phonemes that the children have learnt. It is focused on using them in their reading and writing.

I do hope that this helps those of you who said that this would help you at home, whilst working with your child.

Good luck,

Mrs A-E

Order of learning the phonemes (Phase 2,3 and 5)

Order of learning the Tricky words (Phase 2,3 and 4)